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Re: Toluene vs. Toulene

I've often heard toluene called tolulene and I've seen the solvent sold
under both names. I believe the Merck Chemical Manual lists the two words
as synonyms. It appears that tolulene may not be the most correct usage,
but it is the most common among the general public.   
Audi owners must be a healthy group. Quite a few messages and not one
mentions that toluene also enjoyed popularity, at one time, as a most
popular ingredient in airplane glue. Reportedly, it kept many generations
of model builders content and returning for more. I know of at least one
chemical supplier who had to keep a special watch on the toluene tank as,
on occasion,  the neighbors liked to help themselves to buckets full.    


   At 03:01 PM 09/01/1999 -0400, Robert Myers wrote:
>It seems I owe an apology to Mike.  My negative reaction to what I regard
>as misinformation was ill expressed.  Sorry, Mike.  
>Warning:  Pedantic alert!  Be warned.  <Delete> now?
>That, however, does not change my evaluation of the information presented.
>Toluene (and xylene) is (are) hydrophobic (water fearing) and do not mix
>significantly with water.  Toluene will evaporate moderately fast.  Not as
>fast as some other components of gasoline but also faster than some others.
>Substance:	BP:
>Toluene	108C	
>o-xylene	144C
>m-xylene	139C
>p-xylene	138C
>Kerosene	175C-225C
>gasoline	 40C-205C
>These later boiling ranges rather than a specific boiling temperature
>indicate the presence of a many component mixture.
>Sunoco may well have said that toluene has limited usefulness as an octane
>booster.  I suspect that the limited effectiveness may be more related to
>the presence of other "octane boosters" already there and therefore little
>additional effect will be seen.
>What an octane booster does is slow the ignition/detonation process to more
>of a whoosh rather than a BANG!.  This is accomplished by the presence of
>specific molecules in which free radicals are formed more easily that in
>others.  The -CH3 of C6H5-CH3 is such a position.  Also so is a tertiary
>hydrogen of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane).  BTW, this is the "octane"
>of our beloved octane ratings.  A fuel mixture which burns as if it were
>94% isooctane and 6% n-heptane has an octane rating of 94.  There might not
>even be any isooctane in it.  All that is needed is for the complex mixture
>to behave in the same way that the specific mixture of isooctane and
>n-heptane behaves.
>Uh...  Let's see...  Free radical: a species characterized by the presence
>of a single unpaired electron.
>First step in ignition:
>C6H5-CH3 + O2 --->  C6H5-CH2.  + HOO.  (two free radicals)  This and a
>couple of succeeding steps are what are made easier by the presence of
>octane enhancers.  It makes the ignition easier to commence and thus
>(contrary to what you might think) easier to control.  Milder conditions
>are requires so the process doesn't get out of hand.
>At 11:05 AM 09/01/1999 EDT, MCTXR4@aol.com wrote:
>>In a message dated 09/01/1999 1:29:54 PM !!!First Boot!!!,
>>> t 08:14 AM 09/01/1999 EDT, you wrote:
>>>  >They are probably the same just a misprint somewhere.
>>>  Indeed.
>>>  >Toluene is a volatile additive that can boost various grades of
>>>  >to 20 points. Usually used in drag racing only because it is corrosive
>>>  >fuel lines and is very hygrophilic (sp?) that is, it attracts water. 
>>>  Negative!  It is hydrophobic.  A certain very small amount of water will
>>>  sometimes be found in it.  It is my understanding that significant levels
>>>  of toluene are found in most European gasolines.  Any of you from across
>>>  the pond care to confirm that?
>>>  >When 
>>>  >uncapping a can it should be done in low humidity conditions and used 
>>>  >Otherwise it loses it's effectiveness through water absorption from the 
>>>  >atmosphere and it vaporizes very quickly.
>>>  Negative again!  It does evaporate fairly quickly.  It boils at 108C.  A
>>>  trace amount of water will only help achieve the desired effect of
>>>  increasing fuel octane ratings.  This is what is done with water
>>>  into the intake manifold.
>>>  >A few SCCA racers I know have tried this with less than spectacular 
>>>  >mainly because the Toluene vaporizes out of the fuel mixture before the 
>>>  >of a race, leaving them with only whatever grade gas they started with. 
>>>  If true, then there must be some other reason - 108C BP?  This compares
>>>  quite well with many common components of gasoline.
>>>  >If I remember correctly, SUNOCO has this information on their Racing 
>>>  >website.
>>>  >
>>I never said my memory was perfect... but I do specifically remember the
>>about rapid vaporization from the Sunoco site and the remark about limited 
>>usefulness. I do not now, nor have I ever, represented myself as an expert
>>fuels. I refer any and all listers to the Sunoco website as the authority. 
>>The Sunoco site also covers other additives people have tried to get cheap 
>>Mike Torio
>   Bob
>* Robert L. Myers  rmyers@inetone.net          Home 304-574-2372      *
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